Braunschweig's good reputation for research and sciences is based on a long and rich tradition. The 'Collegium Carolinum' was founded way back in the year 1745 and was the forerunner for today's Technical University 'Carolo-Wilhelmina' that is the most established and traditional one in Germany. Carl Friedrich Gauß, called the 'Prince of Mathematicians', who was born in Braunschweig in 1777 studied at that university.
The Technical University 'Carolo Wilhelmina', founded in 1745 as 'Collegium Carolinum', was changed into the 'Polytechnische Schule' (Polytechnical College) in 1862 before being named 'Herzogliche Technische Hochschule Carolo.Wilhelmina' (Ducal Technical College Carolo-Wilhelmina) in 1878. When a faculty of law and a faculty of philosophy were added, it changed from a technical college into a technical university.
The Hochschule für Bildende Künste (HBK) (University of Art) in Braunschweig was founded in 1963 and replaced the old Werkkunstschule (School for arts and crafts). In the year 1972 it became a university-level institution and since 1978 it has the status of an art university. It is the only university of art in Lower Saxony.